Good News Blog

Cain's Line Theory

Posted by bonesiii on August 13, 2012 at 9:45 PM

While I was researching the question of why we don't (apparently) find pre-Flood ruins, I noticed some things that made me form the following biblical theory and some related sub-theories.

I have often heard that Cain's line died out in the global Flood, so that only Seth's line lived on. But I noticed several clues that this might not be true, and they provide a theory about another mystery -- who are the four wives that were on the Ark?

NOTE: See this page about my preferred spellings for many of these names. I will be using these here, except that well-known common versions will be given in parentheses after them the first time they're used. If I alter the spelling in a Scriptural reference it will be in {} brackets, with any well-known forms if needed in parentheses (all normal brackets in Scripture here are translator's footnotes, from NIV 1984). I will sometimes refer to Cain or his line by the standard spelling here. Bold quotes are from the Bible, bold and italic from sources like Wikipedia and Blue Letter Bible.

The common idea is that we are all only descended from Seth and his wife, and perhaps other sons and daughters (Genesis 5:4) married into the line, not from Kayin's line (Cain). I have never heard any actual support for this; it seems to be treated as an assumption (if anyone does know of support for it please inform me ).

First of all, let's review who survived the global flood (Genesis 7:23):

"Every living thing on the face of the earth was wiped out; men and animals and the creatures that move along the ground and the birds of the air were wiped from the earth. Only Noakh {Noah} was left, and those with him in the ark."

The context tells us that there were four people whose names we know on the ark -- Noakh and his three sons, Shem, Ham, and Yafeth (Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth) -- and each of their wives, who are not named. We are also given the genealogies for the four men (Genesis 5), but not for the four women.

That is... it appears, at first glance, that we are not given the womens' genealogies.

And yet, oddly we are given a genealogy for the descendants of Kayin. If his line really did die out, this would seem somewhat pointless, though possible. Here it is, with a bit of context that'll come into this (Genesis 4:15b-26):

"Then the Lord put a mark on {Kayin} so that no one who found him would kill him. So {Kayin} went out from the Lord’s presence and lived in the land of Nod, [Nod means wandering] east of Eden. {Kayin} lay with his wife, and she became pregnant and gave birth to {Enokh "Cainson" (Enoch)}. {Kayin} was then building a city, and he named it after his son {Enokh}. To {Enokh} was born Irad, and Irad was the father of {Mehuyael}, and {Mehuyael} was the father of Methushael, and Methushael was the father of {Lamekh "Cainline" (Lamech)}.

{Lamekh} married two women, one named Adah and the other Zillah. Adah gave birth to {Yabal}; he was the father of those who live in tents and raise livestock. His brother’s name was {Yuval}; he was the father of all who play the harp and flute. Zillah also had a son, {Tubal Kayin}, who forged all kinds of tools out of [Or who instructed all who work in] bronze and iron. {Tubal Kayin}’s sister was Naamah.

{Lamekh} said to his wives,

'Adah and Zillah, listen to me;

    wives of {Lamekh}, hear my words.

I have killed [Or I will kill] a man for wounding me,

    a young man for injuring me.

If {Kayin} is avenged seven times,

    then {Lamekh} seventy-seven times.'

Adam lay with his wife again, and she gave birth to a son and named him Seth, [Seth probably means granted] saying, 'God has granted me another child in place of {Hevel (Abel)}, since {Kayin} killed him.' Seth also had a son, and he named him Enosh.

At that time men began to call on [Or to proclaim] the name of the Lord."

There are many interesting points to this.

First, note that it's highly unlikely the reference to Seth's birth and his son Enosh are chronological with all of Cain's line being born first.

I suspect that the "then" in the line "{Kayin} was then building a city" and the "at that time" after the reference to Enosh means that the calling on the name of the Lord began when Cain was building the city. This calling is often thought to mean simply that some people were beginning to repent of their sins and put faith in God to save them, in a Hebrews 11 style of faith.

After that, it's obvious that the writer felt a reason to give more detail about Lamekh and his son, and to group this with the mention of Cain and his son Enokh, thus to also include Lamekh's patriarchal genealogy. I get the impression that most people think it is merely to show how violent the world had been then, and to show how intelligent the people were, already working with metal for example.

It makes sense that these are reasons this was done. But we should not blindly assume that they are the only reasons.

The most striking clue I see here is this sentence, which by the standard theory seems pointlessly tacked on: "{Tubal Kayin}’s sister was Naamah."

Now if this line died out, what possible purpose could there be in giving us this random woman's name?

We aren't given any details about her. It seems to imply that the people at the time this was written knew full well who she was, thus it was too common of knowledge to bother including. The Bible does often refer to extrabiblical sources, especially when referring to the annals of the Kings of Israel. These references do not elevate those sources to Scripture but merely confirm that the details being mentioned are for the most part accurate. It may be that this was intended as a reference to folk knowledge that was not written down.

Notice also that the only details we are given about what anybody in Cain's line did productively are that Kayin built a city (presumably in Nod, east of Eden), and these three:

"{Yabal}; he was the father of those who live in tents and raise livestock"

"{Yuval}; he was the father of all who play the harp and flute"

"{Tubal Kayin}, who forged all kinds of tools out of bronze and iron"

Now why would the mention of "Enokh City" be included?

That one seems pretty easy. Perhaps it was always the biggest city or even the only major city. And perhaps Noah and his family simply lived there prior to the Flood.

For the others, it does seem strange if the line died out, that these three would be the only significant inventors in all the pre-Flood history. For the first two, it seems to make sense as they are called fathers (probably in the same sense that we call Mendel the father of modern genetics). Perhaps the brothers Yabal and Yuval were unusually inventive. But we are not told that Tubal Kayin was the inventor of forging, merely that he forged.

Also, some think that the use of Kayin with Tubal is a title, referring to a job of metalworking. Given also that Kayin himself built a city, perhaps Kayin invented metalworking as part of that construction, and his name became a title for that job. Thus, Kayin would be the inventor of metalworking and Tubal merely someone who worked at that job. If this is right, then why bother to mention his job?

Thus the purpose does not seem to be to list the three most important inventors, and if depicting violence and inventiveness were the only purposes, I would expect at least a few other examples.

Yet, it would make sense to list just these three if these were the three areas of expertise that were continued after the Flood.

Notice the tense (at least in the translation) of the "father" statements as well:

"{Yabal}; he was the father of those who live in tents and raise livestock"

"{Yuval}; he was the father of all who play the harp and flute"

"{Tubal Kayin}, who forged all kinds of tools out of bronze and iron"

Only with Tubal Kayin is it in the past tense. The other two say that they were the father of all who do these things even in the present.

And notice the interesting math here. We have three generations that are placed right at the end of the Flood.

In the earliest of these three final generations, we have Lamekh "Sethline" (Genesis 5:25-31), and perhaps we also have, at the same time, Lamekh "Cainline".

In the next proposed generation, we have five people. There is Noakh in Seth's line, and in Cain's there is the woman named Naamah and her brother and half-brothers.

Then in the final generation, we know there are three sons of Noakh; Shem, Ham, and Yafeth.

The math does not appear to immediately match up. But what if the purpose of mentioning the three sons of Lamekh Cainline are not really about those men at all, but about daughters born to them? What if the implication here is that the sons of Noakh married daughters of Lamekh Cainline?

That would put the math like this, for the final two generations:

Noakh & Naamah

Noakh's three sons & three granddaughters of Lamekh Cainline.

With that idea, the numbers match up. So the theory is that the purpose of mentioning Naamah is that she was Noakh's wife, and Shem, Ham, and Yafeth married her nieces. Noakh's sons may have learned the trades mentioned from their fathers-in-law, and that would explain why those trades live on in the post-Flood world. (Again, we aren't specifically told here that metalworking lived on, but we know from other historical sources that it did.)

This might seem unlikely at first, because the common assumption is that Cain's line was ungodly, and Seth's line was godly. And this may very well be, but it's also possible that Noakh and his sons had nobody else to choose from. But I suspect it's not that simple. Notice the parallels in the names of the two genealogies.

In the case of the two Lamekhs, if my theory is right, they probably were born around the same time. There are also the two Enokhs. And several of the "M" names are similar. In Cain's line, there's Mehuyael and Methusael, and in Seth's line there is Mahalalel and Methuselah.

Notice also the use of "el" in those two names in Cain's line. They come in the third and fourth generations after Enokh. If I'm right that the calling on the name of the Lord began during Enokh Cainline's time, this makes sense. Irad might be one who turned to the Lord, and named his son Mehuyael accordingly, who passed that on to his son Methusael.

The two genealogies are not the same in length. One is Kayin, Enokh "Cainline", Irad, Mehuyael, Methusael, Lamekh "Cainline", and Yabal & siblings. That's seven generations. The other is Seth, Enosh, Kainan, Mahalalel, Yared, Enokh "Sethline", Methuselah, Lamekh "Sethline", Noakh, and Shem & siblings. That's ten. A fairly big difference.

But, if my theory is right, then Cain's line is strongly implied to be at least eight generations, counting granddaughters of that Lamekh.

Genesis 5 also gives a wide range of different ages for when the men of Seth's line fathered the male children who then went on to father the others in Noakh's genealogy. They range from 65 in Enokh Sethline's case to 187 in his son Methuselah's case. It's possible that in Cain's line, the times were longer, at least for Lamekh Cainline's genealogy.

Why might that be? Well, Kayin probably married one of his sisters prior to the murder of Hevel. After that, he is clearly afraid that others will be antagonistic to him. If he thinks they will want to kill him, how likely is it they will want to give his sons and grandsons daughters? Not likely. The daughters of the other sons and daughters of Adam were likely married to the sons in any other line besides Cain's.

So perhaps Enokh Cainline could only marry his sister, a daughter of Kayin. That would take longer. The same could be true of Irad. Especially if Enokh failed to produce a daughter.

Now, who is more likely to be forgiving? Those who follow God.

Who was most likely to be following God in the Pre-Flood world? We can't rule out the other unnamed lines, but it certainly seems that Seth's line must be the most godly, since by the time of Noakh, only he and his family were left of the godly.

And since God gave protection to Kayin, forgiving him, who is likely to want to turn to God? Kayin, or someone in his line.

Perhaps Kayin himself did repent, although it does seem unlikely.

Or perhaps Enokh or Irad were having trouble finding wives, so they "converted". Whether genuine or faked, it would be far too much of a stretch to theorize. But it does seem likely that they might find wives from Seth's line.

Intermarriage at that time, perhaps in Yared's generation, would explain why the earlier name of Enokh, obviously known by that time to be associated not just with Kayin's son but with Kayin's city, would be given to the Enokh of Seth's line -- the one who walked with God and then was "God took him away" (which many think means he did not experience physical death). The conversion would explain the names of the next generation in Cain's line.

If we count backwards, the timeline roughly seems to match:

Noakh marries Naamah.

Lamekh and Lamekh's fathers may have been friends or allies to wish to name their sons the same, perhaps one after the other.

Methuselah may take up more time, but he's roughly at the time of Methusael. Notice the close similarity.

Enokh Sethline goes with Mehuyael.

Prior to that then is Irad and Yared. Again notice the similarity.

Prior to that is Enokh Cainline, who may span the Seth line generations of (still going backwards) Mahalalel, Kainan, and Enosh.

Notice also that Kayin seems especially happy to have a son. Yet we know he had a wife. We don't really know he was married prior to killing Hevel, so it's possible it was he who had trouble getting a wife due to his crime, and he who spanned several generations prior to this.

Perhaps Kayin himself could only get a wife from the generations of either Enosh, Kainan, or Mahalalel, because only a woman from Seth's line was forgiving enough. We can probably eliminate Enosh's generation, since the calling began after he was born. That gives two generations to find a wife for Kayin. Or it may be Enokh who had this trouble and Kayin already had a wife; perhaps she was barren for a while and the celebration of a son comes from that (a common occurance later in the Bible).

But I do think it is likely that Kayin's wife may have come from the generation of Kainan, perhaps a sister of Kainan, both of Enosh. Why build a city if you're just one tiny family that is widely reviled? It's possible, but it seems nearly as likely or maybe more so that he was also celebrating a whole familial alliance between his and Seth's line.

If this is right, then the two lines run like this, with pairings indicating people who bore their named sons in the same approximate generation (not reflecting when these people were born) -- Cain's line second in any pairing:




Kainan & Kayin (yet again notice the name similarity, perhaps meaning that Enosh is likely to be the one who forgave Kayin and allowed him to marry one of his daughters, making Kainan the brother-in-law of Kayin, perhaps named partly in honor of this)

Mahalalel & Enokh Cainson (perhaps the name similarity to Enosh is in thanks to Enosh for allowing Kayin to marry)

Yared & Irad

Enokh Sethline & Mehuyael

Methuselah & Methusael

Lamekh Sethline & Lamekh Cainline (likely a split began here due to the Cainline one's ungodliness, explaining the loss of name similarities in the next generation, but the tradition of intermarriage may remain)

Noakh & Naamah (plus Yabal, Yuval, & Tubal Kayin)

Noakh's sons & probably the daughters of Yabal & bros.

Interestingly it all matches up well, with some exceptions like the second Enokh, and yet there are likely explanations for those as well (thus not "patches" since they have other evidence, though admittedly it's extremely loose).

It may merely be that Kayin was celebrating that he would still have descendants despite being reviled, however, and if he had already married before killing Hevel this does make sense. His son may have later married into Seth's line, thus starting the alliance and the reason for a city. So the theorizing gets fuzzy here and there are a number of scenarios that may make sense and would need more analysis if possible.

But the point of this is, I think these two lines were likely intermarrying long before Nhoakh and his sons.


Well, we are told that Lamekh Cainline is very violent and has two wives. Yet Noah is said to be godly, the only godly person left. He didn't kill anyone, and he had one wife. He also certainly didn't brag that he killed anyone. The idea that their lines would intermarry seems absurd at first glance.

We must remember that the state of things at Noah's time does not mean it was always that bad.

More likely godliness was more widespread until then, and God knew that if he did not send the Flood, Noakh's sons or perhaps grandchildren, etc. would be killed, or all fall away, and humanity would become entirely evil. There would be no hope of salvation for any of them; the stage could never be set for Jesus to come. And likely they would all destroy themselves eventually, especially if they unlocked modern technology later on.

A note on that last point is that the lifespans dropped considerably only after the Flood. It's theorized that something happened (I think I know what, but that's a theory for another time) as part of the Flood itself to cause that. It's also been pointed out that humans living close to a thousand years old could become extremely knowledgeable about science even while being very evil. A shorter lifespan tends to limit the effectiveness of the study of physics by evil people as they do not as easily calmly analyze things and spend a lot of time in violence that good people may spend in study.

If those theories are right, then without a Flood people's lifespans would probably continue to be very long, shortening much more gradually, and might not have reached our lifespans until much later. People would have been more able to learn the deeper physics such as how to make nuclear bombs and who knows what manner of torture and horrors. The lost today often think of the Flood as a cruel act by God, but when you think it through, it's clear he waited until the last possible moment when if he did not act, humanity would be utterly lost forever.

But even if there was godliness spread more around prior to Noah, why would he marry anyone connected to Lamekh?

Simple. If the intermarriage began much earlier, it would be tradition.

We also know there was such a tradition after the Flood as shown in Abraham's time, which may have been passed down from Noakh.

And it may be Lamekh Cainline himself who represented the end of godliness in his line. Gone is the use of el in names, in either line.

We should also not assume that Noah himself would be considered unusually godly today. He may have merely been the one who was not too far gone, who would listen to God's call, but he may have been relatively sinful. Keep in mind that although he is called blameless (Genesis 6:9), it is tempered by the words following it:

"Noah was a righteous man, blameless among the people of his time, and he walked with God."

This may mean that in comparison he was righteous. Also, the walked with God tells me that he was not merely a good legalist, but that he had a saving faith, a trust that God would save him, similar to many others mentioned as such in Hebrew 11. He was looking forward to the Savior, though he did not know Jesus' name, in other words. But he likely did compromise to some extent with his culture.

Considering that, plus the tendency of the godly to be forgiving, and the more practical concern that his sons needed wives, it makes sense he would go back to an old familial alliance with Cain's line to fulfill that need. It's possible even without the previous intermarriage part of the theory in fact, though the name similarities seem to make that part likely, to me.

Now since so much of this is about names, I think it's important to include the meanings of the names as far as they are known.

The source for most of this is Wikipedia. Where it does not give the meaning, I went to Wiktionary or Blue Letter Bible and noted it. They're paired as above to help see if the pairings have any additional evidence, but before looking them up I do not expect to find much beyond the obvious ones like Methuselah and Methusael; what I suspect is that making names sound similar, while their meanings were unique to the individual, was a way of signalling an alliance or friendship between the parents. Still, similarities in the meanings would bolster the theory even more.

To differentiate, the names in Seth's line are bolded.

Seth – “Placed; appointed... In Genesis 4:25, there is a folk etymology for Seth's name, which derives it from the Hebrew word for 'plant' as in 'plant a seed' (syt). Eve says, 'God has planted another seed, under/replacing Abel's'.”

Enosh – “mortal man”

I should pause here to note that the Enosh page says this:

“The traditional Jewish interpretation of this verse, though, implies that it marked the beginning of idolatry, i.e. that men start dubbing "Lord" things that were mere creatures. This is because the previous generations, notably Adam, had already "begun calling upon the name of the Lord", which forces us to interpret הוחל huchal not as "began" but as the homonym "profanated". In this light, Enosh suggests the notion of a humanity (Enoshut) thinking of itself as an absolute rather than in relation to God (Enosh vs. Adam).”

Although in a very different way, this would perhaps help explain how Cain's and Seth's lines would be more likely to intermarry, and the rather unflattering meaning given to Enosh. Perhaps Kayin started it and tempted others into it, as part of his strategy to get a wife.

Kainan – “possession; smith”

Kayin (born before Seth) – “spear” (from the Curse and mark of Cain page) or “Blacksmith” (from the Lamekh page under Tubal Kayin), also “Cain sounds like the Hebrew for brought forth or acquired” (footnote to Genesis 4:1)

Now that's interesting. Obviously Kainan was born much later, so probably Kayin invented metalworking first and that meaning of smith could have been a prophecy or decision that Kainan would work as a smith for Kayin, as part of the proposed deal with Enosh, perhaps involving idolatry, or a turning towards godly forgiveness, or something else entirely.

Mahalalel – "praise of God” (Blue Letter)

Enokh Cainline (same meaning in both lines) – "dedicated” (Blue Letter)

Yared – “descent or to descend”

Irad – “its meaning is unknown and it is assumed that it is a play on the Hebrew word 'Mored' which means Rebelius [sic] in reference to Irad being a part of the 'Bad Seeds' of Cain's blood. Irad is also a Persian name meaning 'desire'.” So says Wikipedia, but Blue Letter disagrees: "fleet"

Enokh Sethline (same meaning in both lines) – "dedicated” (Blue Letter)

Mehuyael – "smitten by God" (Blue Letter)

Methuselah – “'Man of the dart/spear', or alternatively 'his death shall bring'”

Methusael – "who is of God"

Lamekh Sethline (same in both lines) – “Pauper”

(Other Lamekh)

Adah (of unknown descent) – “Ornament, Dawn”

Zillah (of unknown descent) – “Shadow”

Noakh – “Lamech named him nûaḥ (the final ḥ is a more guttural sound than the English h), saying, 'This same shall comfort us in our work and in the toil of our hands, which cometh from the ground which the LORD hath cursed.'... This connects the future patriarch's name with nāḥam, 'comfort', but it seems better related to the word nûaḥ, meaning 'rest', and is more a play on words than a true etymology.”

Naamah – “Beautiful, Pleasure” Her page adds that some extrabiblical sources do call her the wife of Noakh, or at least that Noakh had a wife by that name, sometimes of a different genealogy. One is said to be of Seth's line, but if my theory is right, they are not two distinct lines anyways, and these traditions may have become confused.

Yabal – “Shepherd”

Yuval – “The ram's horn, Musician, (also) stream”

Tubal Kayin – “[You will] be brought of Cain (not translating Cain), Blacksmith (translating Cain)”

Naham and Naamah are similar in sound, though not so much in meaning.

Note that the three sons of Lamekh fit my theory that two of them invented the lines of work of shepherding and music, and that Kayin invented metalworking. Prior to the inventions of these things they would not have had names, so these three individuals' names may have meant something entirely different until they started what they became famous for. Then, their names could have been used as the words for those jobs.

In Kayin's case “brought forth” looks like the original meaning, especially in light of Eve's statement in Genesis 4:1, and that he was the first child ever. “Spear” may have become a meaning metaphorically after he killed Hevel, or perhaps he made a spear to kill him with, or in general may have been the inventor of spears. Perhaps he originally invented wooden spears, and later invented smithery to improve this. He may have hunted for food, or fish, rather than eating fruit (we don't really know if the eating of meat began prior to the Flood but it's very likely).

In Yuval's case, stream might perhaps be the original meaning, while the other two refer to his starting music, or a type of music, perhaps actually using ram's horns (though that is likely a later meaning from Israel's time).

Shem – "renown; prosperity; name"

Ham – “'hot' or 'burnt'”

Yafeth – "opened" (Blue Letter)

So, there is some evidence there, but it's shaky, and most of it I already mentioned prior to this list.

Something else to consider here is the “sons of God” reference in Genesis 6; the fathers of the “Nephilim” or giants.

Marriage to “daughters of men” is mentioned there. It's sometimes theorized these were actually fallen angels, but also theorized to be descendants of descendents of Seth who were godly. The basic idea of marriages that may have been questionable for some reason fits my theory, but the Seth line idea would reverse the direction, and there's no particular reason to associate “men” with Cain's line specifically. It's possible this refers to something else entirely, especially if the fallen angels theory is true.

However, I do see a possible clue in Genesis 6:1, which says that this happened when men began to increase in number, and daughters were born to them. Clearly, there had to be some daughters originally for men to be increasing in numbers, and Genesis 5 already confirmed that Adam and Khavah had plural daughters. But let's suppose that all of those were taken.

The increasing in number would probably happen after Enosh's birth, around the time of the “calling on the name of the Lord” (or possibly the beginning of idolatry). The same time I theorize Cain's city is built, which means the marriage alliance has begun already under my theory when many more daughters are born.

Perhaps after that first marriage alliance, Kayin's line began to have many daughters, reversing the original trend, and in Seth's line it was mostly sons. Perhaps a sense of irony on God's part. If so, it would turn what might have started out as one act of mercy towards Kayin into a constant temptation for the mostly godly men of Seth's line.

Now, why would their offspring be giants?

Perhaps the explanation is simply in the theory that all involved in this alliance – those in Seth's and Cain's intermarrying lines – lived in Enokh City.

We don't know anything about this city but presumably it would offer some protection from wild animals, which likely at this time included deadly dragons like the Tyrannosaurs. His knowledge of metalworking could aid in perhaps building a strong fence, and woodworking might help. Perhaps metal tools for carving stone were made. Or perhaps they lived in natural caves, needing merely walls and doors added to keep dragons and other dangerous animals out. Or some combination of these.

This would enable them to survive longer from predators and thus grow taller. Perhaps the natural genetic variation just happened to split a natural tendency for height their way and not to the others.

There's also diet to consider.

Daniel demonstrated that a vegetarian diet, at least at some point in the past, was healthier, and we know that was the original right way. Perhaps the other descendents of Adam lived in the woods and primarily hunted and gathered, while those in Cain's city (both his and Seth's line) had farms within protective walls, and they were still vegetarians. Cain was a farmer originally, after all (though I did theorize above he may have become a hunter by necessity, but that may have just been for a time).

Combined with the name of the land Nod that Kayin went to after killing Hevel, “wandering”, perhaps he was originally a farmer, maybe using a sharp wooden tool to work the ground, then used it to kill Hevel. Then, he may have taken it to wander in the east, hunting for food and gathering. Later, he may have founded the city and gone back to farming, inventing metalworking to help with that as well as anything else they needed it for.

Combining genetic luck (not from upvolution but normal genetic variety already present in Adam and Khavah), the benefits of vegetarian diet and healthy life (compared to the stunting effects living in a jungle can have), and the protection of a city ensuring longer lifespans, it does make sense that their descendants would be noticeably taller on average than the other lines which presumably Cain would not allow in his city out of fear they might kill him.

Metalworking would also give them the advantage in defense, hunting.... and murder... and warring. Outsiders might have also wanted to war with them to capture the city, lacking the inventiveness perhaps needed.

As another note, I consider the idea of music as an occupation to strongly imply a stable city life.

This last line of reasoning with the Nephilim is certainly weak, but it's possible for it to fit. It's also possible that the fallen angel theory is correct and that this is a second event unrelated to what I have theorized.

In conclusion, the theory is really three related theories.

First, that Noakh's sons married daughters from the three branches of Lamekh Cainline mentioned in that genealogy, and Noakh married Naamah. This is the core of the theory; if it is true, then we are all descended from Cain as well as from Seth, not Seth alone.

Second and more loosely, there may also have been an alliance of traditionalized intermarriage between the two lines whose genealogies are given prior to the Flood, going back at least to Enokh Cainline most likely.

Third and most loosely, perhaps Cain himself was unable to get a wife from his own generation, so she may have been a descendant of Seth. Or the same basic idea might apply to Cain's son Enokh.

There are a number of lesser side theories as well, such as how the above theories may shed light on the confusing “sons of God” and Nephilim references in Genesis 6.

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